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SOLAR WATER HEATER

A Solar Water Heater is a device which provides hot water for bathing, washing, cleaning, etc. using sun radiation to convert into solar energy. It is generally installed at the terrace or where solar irradiation is available and heats water during day time which is stored in an insulated storage tank for use when required including the day.

Two types of Solar Water Heaters are available; one based on flat plate collectors and the other based on evacuated tube collectors. Flat plate collector (FPC) based systems are of metallic type and have longer life as compared to Evacuated tube collector (ETC) based system because ETCs are made of glass which are of fragile in nature. Both these systems are available with and without heat exchanger. They can also work with and without pump. Systems without pump are known as Thermosyphon systems and those with pump are known as forced circulation systems.

The main part of the Solar Water Heating System is the Flat Plate Collector or in common ‘PANEL’. Metallic strip (mainly of Copper) is coated with thin layers of Nickel and Chromium, which is called as Solar Selective Coating. This selective coating ensures highest degree of absorption of Solar Heat and least possible emission of the same. This results in optimal utilization of the Solar Heat. There are two types of processes based on the operating methods, thermo-siphon and forced flow.

THERMOSYPHON

In this the water in the storage tank circulates continuously through the collectors, based totally on the natural flow of water due to difference in specific gravity of hot and cold water. It does not have to rely on electricity and is a simple and maintenance free system. However in this system, the temperature cannot be controlled and as hot water is drained from the tank, it is replaced by fresh cold water, leading to some amount of mixing.

FORCED FLOW

The flow in this system is controlled through a control panel and pump. The cold water is circulated through the collectors and allowed to stay there until the set temperature is reached. Only then does the pump come on and push the heated water into the storage tank. The entire system is automated and hence it has to rely on electricity supply. In this system the temperature can be controlled, and water in the storage tank at any given time is at the set temperature only.

A 100 litre per day capacity system suitable for 3-4 people can save upto 1500 units of electricity in a year, depending on hot water used. Higher capacity systems will save higher amount of electricity besides reducing higher amount of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions. Electricity is expensive and is not available due to power cuts in many areas when required for heating water.

The Solar Flat Plate Collector is provided with insulation, which prevents heat loss. Similarly the Hot Water Storage Tank and the pipes carrying water up-to user point are also properly insulated. This ensures minimum drop in the temperature of the hot water. As a result, you get hot water even on cold mornings.

For maximum efficiency, the sun-rays should Strike the collector at right angles. For water heating applications, maximum output is required during winter when the sun is at lower altitudes. For maximum output therefore, the collectors should face south direction and be kept at an inclination equal to latitude of the place, which is around +15 to +20 degrees.

For a house with one bathroom and 3 to 4 members, 100 liter per day capacity system should be sufficient. For more numbers of bathrooms, the capacity will increase accordingly due to pipe losses & more number of family members. Generally the capacity is decided based on hot water required in mornings for bathing. If the usage is in evening & at other times also, the capacity is decided accordingly.

The life of solar water heating system depends on the absorber, the construction of the collector, quality of hot water tank & insulation etc. As mentioned above, a M. S. tank may get rusted & start leaking after 4-5 years, thereby resulting in lot of headache & expenditure for replacement. An ideal solar water heating system should have high quality panel, stainless steel (SS 304) tank, good quality pipes of standard make & proper insulation. These things along with use of soft water ensure a long life of system. Absorbers manufactured with the existing technology go through the coating processes at 28 degree Celsius temperature. If the cold-water tank remains empty during the day (which possibility cannot be avoided completely), temperature of approximately 180 degree Celsius is created in the collector This causes the coating at the absorber to weaken. This results in the reduction of effective life of solar water heating system. In Solarizer, we heat the absorber material to 300 degree Celsius while applying the solar selective coating on it. Thus our absorber retains its efficiency and the coating even after going through the temperature of 180 degree Celsius for hundreds of hours. We believe that the solar water system manufactured according to our technical benchmark and having our absorber will have a life span of more than 25-years.

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If it is cloudy for a day or two, you still get warm water as water gets heated due to diffused radiation available in the atmosphere. The system, however, is either connected to an electric geyser in the house or an electrical back-up is provided in the storage tank of the system which is switched on when water is not sufficiently hot. So, you get hot water all the time even on rainy days.

Ministry has laid down some minimum technical requirements for installation of solar water heating systems in the field . These have been made mandatory for manufacturers and suppliers and are available on MNRE website. These requirements are have been prepared in such a way that even a lay man can also check them and ensure that those are being adhered to by the manufacturers/suppliers. In case any manufacturer/supplier is found not sticking to these requirements, he may be blacklisted if informed to the Ministry.

There can be various reasons for poor performance of Solar Water Heating System such as:
• The most important reason – Low Quality Absorber.
• The collectors are not installed properly to suit the latitude of your city.
• Dealers / installers lacking required technical knowledge about Solar Energy, not following the standards and having purely commercial attitude are responsible for this. Please ensure that dealer / installer has required knowledge.
• We being in the Northern Hemisphere, Sun is in the south most of the critical time. So the panels must be installed facing SOUTH to gather maximum heat.
• Care is not taken to ensure that the hot water does not get mixed with the cold water. Solar Water Heating System is of inadequate capacity. (Undersized System.)
• Continuous use of hot water over long period.
• Lack of adequate shadow free space for installation.
• Use of hard water having dissolved salts beyond acceptable limit causing scaling and retardation of heat transfer process.
• Inadequate head for the cold water storage tank resulting in sluggish circulation.
• Inadequate capacity cold water storage tank.
• Poor quality insulation of storage tank and pipes.
• Blockage of system due to sediments in the water.
• Panel top glass not clean, affecting Solar Transmittance.

Most domestic Solar Geysers don’t require a lot of maintenance, as there are no moving parts in the solar geyser. The only maintenance needed is cleaning of the glass once a month for best results. But if you live in a hard water area, the descaling process once every year is recommended.
For Industrial systems, the pumps need to be inspected at frequent intervals, check for scaling and choking periodically and replacement of some parts of the control panel, as and when required.

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Yes! The system can be designed into your house to fit unobtrusively on to a sloping roof, with a storage tank concealed, etc. This is best done, with the active involvement of your architect with our representative at the design stage itself, any modifications or changes later on are difficult to incorporate.

Solar PV System

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Solar PV system gives protection from rising electricity tariffs – Conventional electricity tariffs are rising at 5%+ every year

How does roof top solar power system generate electricity?

  • Solar panel’s Photovoltaic (PV) cells convert sunlight into Electricity (DC).
  • The DC electricity converts into AC electricity by Inverter.
  • AC electricity supplies electrical power to lights and appliances.
  • The electricity meter measures the energy you draw and feed back to the grid (utility service).

Solar cells, also called photovoltaic (PV) cells by scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. PV gets its name from the process of converting light (photons) to electricity (voltage), which is called the PV effect.

A photovoltaic system, also photovoltaic power system, solar PV system, PV system or casually solar array, is a power system designed to supply usable solar power by means of photovoltaic.

A photovoltaic cell (PV cell) is a specialized semiconductor diode that converts visible light into direct current (DC). Some PV cells can also convert infrared (IR) or ultraviolet (UV) radiation into DC electricity.

A solar array consists of one or many such panels. A photovoltaic array, or solar array, is a linked collection of solar panels. The power that one module can produce is seldom enough to meet requirements of a home or a business, so the modules are linked together to form an array.

In a solar rooftop system, the solar panels are installed in the roof of any residential, commercial, institutional and industrial buildings. This can be of two types:

  • Solar Rooftop System with storage facility using battery, and
  • Grid Connected Solar Rooftop System.
    .

In grid connected rooftop or small SPV system, the DC power generated from SPV panel is converted to AC power using power conditioning unit and is fed to the grid either of 33 kV/11 kV three phase lines or of 440/220 Volt three/single phase line depending on the capacity of the system installed at institution/commercial establishment or residential complex and the regulatory framework specified for respective States. These systems generate power during the day time which is utilized fully by powering captive loads and feed excess power to the grid as long as grid is available. In case, where solar power is not sufficient due to cloud cover etc., the captive loads are served by drawing power from the grid.

Such rooftop systems can be installed at the roofs of residential and commercial complex, housing societies, community centers, government organizations, private institutions etc.

A 1 kW rooftop system generally requires 12 sq. meters (130 square feet) of flat, shadow-free area (preferably south-facing). Actual sizing, however, depends also on local factors of solar radiation and weather conditions and shape of the roof.

The average cost of grid connected rooftop solar systems is about Rs. 75 per watt.

  • CAPEX Model: Here, the entire system is owned by the rooftop owners. Responsibility of O&M for the system lifetime (25 years) is also with the rooftop owner. Developer is responsible for installing the system and initial 2 years O&M.
  • RESCO Model: Here, the entire system is owned by the developer. Responsibility of O&M for the system lifetime (25 years) is also with the developer. Rooftop owners may consume the electricity generated, for which they have to pay a pre-decided tariff on a monthly basis. Excess generation may be exported to the grid, subject to availability of requisite state regulations.

The grid connected rooftop system can work on net metering basis wherein the beneficiary pays to the utility on net meter reading basis only. Alternatively two meters can also be installed to major the export and import of power separately. The mechanism based on gross metering at mutually agreed tariff can also be adopted.

  • Electricity generation at the consumption center and hence Savings in transmission and distribution losses
  • Low gestation time
  • No requirement of additional land
  • Improvement of tail-end grid voltages and reduction in system congestion with higher self-consumption of solar electricity
  • Local employment generation

Which Solarizer is right for me?

Over 4, 00,000 domestic and 50,000 non domestic satisfied customers from all over India appreciate the quality of our Solar Water Heaters – which delivers optimum of hot water, with different capacities.

Any financing options available for solar energy system?

  • Various financing options, depending upon the size of the system and other factors, are available for solar energy system
  • Loans – Many banks include the value of the Solar System as part of the housing loan. Some banks and Financial Institutions also offer loans specifically for the purchase of Solar Power systems. EMI of such loans can be easily covered by the saving you make on your electricity bills.
  • Investors – For eligible projects, there are HNI and Institutional investors who invest in Solar energy systems on your rooftop and enter into a Power Purchase Agreement with you. You only pay for the energy that is generated and consumed by you at a rate which is significantly lower than the standard rate charged by Electricity Companies.
    To understand your financing options, please get in touch with KBSol Energetics LLP on +91 9987752004

What maintenance does a solar energy system require?

Grid connected solar energy system which do not use batteries require very little maintenance
Depending on the climate and dust conditions, the solar panels may need to be washed periodically so the dust which settles on the panels does not reduce efficiency of the system by blocking sunlight.

KBSol Energetics LLP also provides preventive, predictive and shutdown maintenance, which includes followings:

  • 24 x 7 basis monitoring of the solar systems.
  • Cleaning and closely monitoring all parameters and ensures plant performance ratio
  • Periodic checklist to maintain & analyze for maintenance planning
  • Remote monitoring of the system performance on an ongoing basis

How much will I save on my electricity bills

  • Saving depend on your electricity consumption and the tariff rate of your current electricity company.
  • As an example, in Mumbai ,a 10KW solar roof top system for residentioal / commercial building will save Rs 1,77,000 / – on electricity bills per year.
  • To understand how a solar power system will help you to save on Electricity bills, Please contact KBSol Energetics LLP on +91 9987752004 or www.kbsolar.in

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